National Calendar

Panchang: Hindu Lunar calendar is called the Panchang ("The five Limbs"). The lunar calendar is based upon the daily rising and setting of moon and on it's waxing and waning characteristics. The lunar month is divided into two fifteen-day parts. Beginning with the new moon (Purnima), the subsequent fifteen days culminate in the full moon and are called waxing or bright fortnight (Shuklapaksha).

The next fifteen days following the full moon culminate in the new moon (Amaavasya) and are called waning or dark fortnight (Krishna Paksha). Each day of the month is associated with either the bright fortnight or the dark fortnight. The lunar year consists of twelve months of thirty days each. The calendar adds an extra month once every five years to correct for the difference between the solar and the lunar year.

The names of the month of the lunar year are : Chaitra (March - April), Vaisaka (April - May), Jyeshtha (May - June), Ashadha (June - July), Sravana (July - August), Bhadrapada (August - September), Asvina (September - October), Karttika (October - November), Agrahayana (November-December), Paush ( December-January), Magha (January-February) and Phalguna (February-March). In the calendar, the days of the week are believed to be governed by deities.

Sunday is ruled by Sun(Ravi) and is called Ravivar('var' means day), Monday is called Somavar and is ruled by the moon(Soma),Tuesday or Mangalvar is ruled by Mars (Mangal),Wednesday is ruled by Mercury(Budh),hence Budhvar ,Thursday is ruled by(Brhaspati) and is called Brahaspativar, Friday or Shukravar is ruled by Venus(Shukra) ,and Saturday is ruled by Saturn(Sani) and is called Sanivar.

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